Basement Tectonics & Their Surface Expression
Applications for Hydrocarbon Exploration I
Radar and Future Systems
Engineering & Environment
Geobotanical Remote Sensing
Advanced Image Processing
Data Integration & Mapping
Applications for Hydrocarbon Exploration II
Applications for Mineral Exploration I
Applications for Mineral Exploration II
Seventh Thematic Conference
October '89, Calgary, Alberta
The Thematic Conferences organized in 1982 were designed to focus on specific applications of remote sensing technology. Their emphasis is on practical methods and solutions to real-world problems. The increasing popularity of the series reflects the maturing state of the technology and the dramatic growth of the remote sensing users' community.
The first Thematic Conference concentrated on remote sensing for arid and semi-arid lands and was held in Cairo, Egypt, in January 1982. The six subsequent conferences, each addressing the use of remote sensing for exploration geology, were held in: Fort Worth, Texas (December 1982); Colorado Springs, Colorado (April 1984); San Francisco, California (April 1985); Reno, Nevada (October 1986); Houston, Texas (May 1988); and Calgary, Alberta, Canada (October 1989). At the recent Calgary meeting, more than 500 participants heard 200 technical presentations by experts representing 27 countries. Consistent with the goals of the series, the presentations addressed the interests of a wide range of attendees, including users approaching the technology for the first time, those involved with maintaining and improving established remote sensing operations, and researchers advancing the state of the art.
Other technical conferences administered by ERIM include the NASA/NOAA conference on "Earth Observations and Global Change Decision Making: A National Partnership", the International Symposia on Remote Sensing of Environment, the National Infrared Information Symposia and their associated speciality group meetings, and the annual, Tri-Service Radar Symposia.
MAPPING OF BASEMENT AND OTHER TECTONIC FEATURES USING SEASAT
AND THEMATIC MAPPER IN HYDROCARBON-PRODUCING AREAS OF ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN,
Preferrential accumulation of hydrocarbons along faults and other structural related features indicate that Remotely Sensed data can be successfully used as an aid to other exploration activities. A descriptive analysis of some geological features which have a direct bearing on hydrocarbon exploration.
K.S. Misra, Geological Survey of India. PhD from the University of Manitoba. The last two years with the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing.
SATELLITE IMAGERY LINEAMENTS AND THEIR RELATION TO FACIES TRENDS,
STRUCTURE, SALT DIAPIRISM AND OIL-FIELD PRODUCTION PATTERNS IN THE ZAGROS
FOLD BELT OF SOUTH-WEST IRAN AIR PHOTOGRAPHY AND SATELLITE IMAGERY
This presentation clearly shows large North American aeromagnetic maps to be characterized as elongated linear trends such as aeromagnetic lineaments. Over extensive areas of these trends lineaments fall into specific strike sets of particular significance. The discovery of lineaments coinciding with faults in the basement can date back to 1.7 billion years.
H. McQuillan from New-Zealand. PhD from Nottingham, England. Worked with the Royal Dutch Shell Co. in Borneo, and 20 years as Explorational Adviser to the National Iranian Oil Co. during the Islamic Revolution.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE IMAGERY,
GRAVITY, AND MAGNETIC DATA TO THE RECOGNITION OF STRUCTURAL STRATIGRAPHIC
TRAPS IN THE ALBERTA BASIN, CANADA
This project's major objective is to determine how much control we can see on the sedimentation and distribution of reservoirs from structural and basement features. LANDSAT Imagery is also compared with seismic, gravity, and magnetic anomalies.
Z. Berger has been a long time researcher with EXXON in Texas. Presently with ESSO in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
MINERALOGY MAPPING WITH IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY FOR PRECIOUS METALS
How one would go about exploring a particular type of deposit using Spectral Remote Sensing. Linking physical properties with geological characteristics and applying them to Remote Sensing. A total Spectral Remote Sensing strategy that one can use operationally.
K.A. Kruse, PhD from the Colorado School of Mines, Research Associate with The Study Of Earth and Space in the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
USE OF MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL INFRARED REMOTE SENSING IN EXPLORATION
From a geological standpoint we have not had the necessary tools to do the research and exploration to advance to the point where we are in the visible and infrared spectrums. The introduction of Spectral Thermal Remote Sensing is an intricate part of the spectrum that is rich in mineralogical features and information which is not found in the visible infrared spectrum. Understanding and applying Spectral Thermal Remote Sensing can make some valuable contributions in geological mapping and exploration.
M. Abrams, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, USA.
THE SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF MINERAL MIXTURES IN THE MID-INFRARED
Research indicates that the study of the mid-infrared work is lacking compared to work in the Near and Visible spectrums. Earlier studies state there is some very good information available on different compositions of rock, variations between minerals and variations within minerals. But there hasn't been a lot of quantitative work done on mineral combinations and combinations of mixtures. This detailed project takes the imaging aspect away from the research and focuses on the laboratory aspects of research done in the mid-infrared spectrum.
J.L. Gardiner, PhD candidate, Dartmouth College, NH, USA.
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND POTASH MINE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES USING
INTEGRATED PHOTOLINEAMENT, GEOLOGIC, GEOCHEMICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS
Studies indicate Surface Lineaments can in some cases reflect subsurface structures.This discussion focuses on the mapping of photolineament patterns and the interpretation of these patterns using correlation with multiple types of data, in order to try and identify subsurface structures and features that are reflected in the surface lineament patterns.
L.A. Penner from J.D. Mollard and Associates, Regina, SASK, Canada.
SPECTRAL VARIATION INDICATIVE OF KEROGEN TYPE AND CATAGENETIC
BIOMARKERS IN SOURCE ROCK REFLECTANCE SPECTRA
Porphyrin organic compounds are considered to be biomarkers of depositional environment and thermal maturity. These elements can be detected using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy without the extraction of organic matter. Prescribing this field oriented technique to examine core or outcrop samples of oil shales and source rock is presented.
P.N. Holden is a PhD candidate from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE INVESTIGATIONS TO EXPLORATION
IN WEST GERMANY AND SWITZERLAND
This study bases its research in Germany and Switzerland where conventional research studies were unsuccessful in the Lower Saxony and Swiss Mollase Basin areas. Both of these regions have proven hydrocarbon sites and well defined structural tracks. But in both cases the lack of success in exploration is related to tight reservoirs and the lack of permiabilities in the area. Studies conducted were primarily aimed to see where fracture resevoirs are most likely to occur in basement blocks.
Z. Berger has been a long time researcher with EXXON in Texas. Presently with ESSO in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
APPLICATION OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR) TO GOLD EXPLORATION
IN TROPICAL REGIONS
A detailed study of Gold exploration in tropical regions using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data.Outlined here are the advantages of using SAR images in heavily forested areas that restrict access to target areas of mineralization. A case study is presented that illustrates both the technical and financial benefits of using airborne SAR techniques.
W.C. Jefferies worked with Radar Research in Indonesia, Malaysia and New Guinea. Currently Group Manager of the Airborne Geophysical Survey for INTERA/ Kenting, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
A MULTI-FREQUENCY POLARIMETRIC SAR FOR REMOTE SENSING AND ITS
An application of multi-frequency polarimetric SAR technology developed by ERIM with X-, and L-band is well documented. This system has several advanced motion error compensation sub-systems. How to obtain valuable geomorphic and foliage discrimination information obtained from different frequencies and polarizations is explained with specific examples.
T.A. Auch from ERlM, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Involved in design of simulation, fabrication, and testing of custom digital electronics for SAR. Works for ERIM in Electronic Systems Development. Currently working in mission planning, imaging interpretation, analysis and flight support for ERlM XLC P3 SAR system. CANADIAN RADAR PROGRAMS - AN OVERVIEW
An overview of the Canadian Radar Program, goals and its achievements. How Canada has established ground receiving segments and the development of Radar programs primarily focusing on radar applications in Geology. Furthermore, a comprehensive summary on the "Radarsat Project" which is the development of the first Earth observation satellite for Canada.
S. Parashar, MSc in Electric Engineering, University of Kansas. Since 1985 with the Canadian Space Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. At present, responsible for Mission Management.
GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS
Detection of hydrocarbon contamination, mapping of Brine spills and delineation of boulder fields require subsurface probing. This subsurface information can be obtained with the use of (GPR) Ground Probing Radar.
M. Galbralth is president of Seismic Image Algorithms and Computer Applications and Interpretations of Seismic Data Management, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
PUTTING SPECTRAL VALUES IN THEIR PLACE: A PRIVATE CONSULTANT'S
EXPERIENCES WITH DATA INTEGRATION METHODOLOGIES
A general overview of the current Remote Sensing issues, looked at from a consultants perspective to see what their implications are for day to day activities of Geotechnical Remote Sensing. Intricate components such as Geobotany, Geotechnical Education, Workstations, Geomatics all contribute to an important review of the current Remote Sensing issues.
L.A. Rivard: 32 years interpreting Air Photos/Imageries, 15 teaching Remote Sensing. Carried out studies in 17 countries.
THE EXXON-VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA
The uses of SAT Imagery in respect to an oil spill; the detecting, monitoring, and an impact analysis of the massive oil spill in Alaska. This presentation clearly demonstrates the timeliness and the ability of Remotely Sensed data to respond to problems of an environmental nature that is happening on a day to day basis.
K. Dean, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska
REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES USED FOR SAND AND GRAVEL EXPLORATION
BY THE ALBERTA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The valuable resource of sand (gravel) is becoming a limited resource in many regions. The Alberta Geological Survey provides a background exploration on searching with the aid of RS techniques.
W.A.D. Edwards, Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. GEOBOTANICAL REMOTE SENSING
SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE RESPONSES FROM LICHENS SUBJECTED TO METAL-INDUCED
Remote sensing using Spectral Reflectance from vegetation is becoming increasingly popular in analysing stress on vegetation. In Northern Canada, lichen carpets form an important component of the ground vegetation which may respond to metal stress and, in turn, may be an aid to mineral prospecting.
P.J. Beckett from Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF VEGETATION TO METALLIC ELEMENTS IN N.E.
MINNESOTA USING HIGH-RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SCANNER DATA
A case study is presented using a high resolution airborne scanner over a heavily vegetated region in Southeastern Minnesota. A classic description of how Boreal forest regions concentrate heavy metals and their stress on vegetation stunting, reducing Biomass and species distribution. A good example of how vegetation responds to the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals.
C.M. Ager is a Botanist from the Geobotanical Group of the U.S. Geological Survey, Renton, VA, USA.
REFLECTANCE ANOMALIES OF HARDWOOD FOREST COVER ABOVE LEAD-ZINC
The development of high-resoloution narrow band airborne sensors permits signatures of stressed vegetation to become a potentially valuable tool for mineral exploration. Analyzing the contamination of base metals and hydrocarbons causing stress on vegetation and how that stress is reflected in narrow band remote sensing images is also outlined.
V.H. Singhrov from the Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
A GROUND-BASED SPECTRAL STUDY OF VEGETATION IN THE SPRUCE-FIR
FOREST, MT. MOOSILAUKE, NH, USA
The results presented in this discussion look at ground-based spectral data of foliar samples collected from trees growing within the Northern spruce-fir forest. The evaluation of striking relationships among the sensor band widths, compiled with spectral reflectance and Geobotanical factors, are presented.
R. W. Birnie from Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.
DIGITAL STEREO DISPLAY AND MEASUREMENT
With all the research that has been carried out concerning stereo capabilities of the SPOT, there has been no attempt to translate SPOT information to geological elements. The results of a joint study by EXXON and the University of Oklahoma to determine the accuracy of SPOT as compared to conventional stereo photogeological measurements.
T.H.L. Williams is Director of Cooperative Institute for Applied Remote Sensing at the College of Geoscience, University of Oklahoma, USA. Z.Berger is with ESSO in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
AN APPLICATION OF PIXEL SWAPPING TECHNIQUE IN REMOTE SENSING
A study to enhance the SEASAT SAR image using Pixel Swapping, one of the image recognition processes.
H. Yamamuro is a Research Scientist with the Toshiba Corporation at the Space Data Systems and Engineering Department, Tokyo, Japan.
A KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING FOR EARTH
Why is Image Interpretation so important ? The design and implementation of a knowledge-based system for image interpretation is applied to Spectral, Spatial, Contextual information which also pose as important components of Image understanding.
M. Stadelmann is MSc candidate in Remote Sensing, Department of Survey and Engineering at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
DATA INTEGRATION & MAPPING
OUACHITA MOUNTAIN THRUST FRONT: A DELTA STRUCTURE INTERPRETED
THROUGH INTEGRATION OF THEMATIC MAPPER, SEISMIC AND WELL-LOG DATA
This Exxon research application taken from the Arcoma Basin (Arkansas/ Oklahoma) sought a geological map, with map faults across the land. Projections of these faults down to their well and logging seismic data, results in an integrated interpretation that would give a model on which to drill future wells. Also, the relationship between a geologist, geophysist and a remote sensor is outlined.
R. I. Dodge has a PhD from the Colorado School of Mines. Worked with the U.S. Geological Survey Office
REMOTE SENSING DETECTION OF HYDROCARBONS AND HYDROCARBON SEEPS
Spectroscopy - a laboratory study of Spectral Properties of Tar Sands. A common technique when doing any type of remote sensing detection of geological significant hydrocarbons. Project site, Fort McMurray (Athabasca region).
E.A. Cloutis has a PhD from the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada.
UTILIZATION OF LANDSAT TM TO IMPROVE MAPPING OF THE NIGER DELTA,
Looking at the southern area of Nigeria, this presentation focuses on how and why Chevron Overseas is using Remote Sensing techniques to update current maps. Also, the integration of SAT Images with base maps is outlined.
J.M. Ellis has a PhD from the University of New York. Head of the Remote Sensing Dept. for Chevron Overseas, San Ramon. USA.
LINEAMENT AND GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS OF REMOTE SENSING DATA AS
AN AID TO HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, SIRT BASIN, LIBYA
This study focuses on north central Libya, describing Lineament analysis of Landsat­p; TM and SIR- A Images, Basement Faults and geomorphic interpretations. Research indicates Remotely Sensed data can be used to detect lineaments and geomorphic anomalies. An in- depth look at lineaments, geomorphic anamolies and their relationship to sub-surface structure.
P.M. Van Dijk has a PhD from the James Cook University, Australia. Currently educational consultant of SHELL, Enschede, The Netherlands.
MAPPING THERMAL MATURITY VARIATIONS IN THE CHAINMAN SHALE NEAR
EUREKA, NEVADA, USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGES
The discussion presented here proposes to map thermal maturation in a given stratigraphic unit using Thematic Mapper data or broad band data. Technically, visible and near infrared reflectance can be used to measure thermal maturity. Now for the first time TM data can be used to map thermal maturity variations especially those pertaining to the supermature areas.
L.C. Rowan, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver CO, USA.
THEMATIC MAPPER (TM) PROCESSING FOR ROUTINE USE IN MINERAL
This discussion analyzes the development of some standard methods of displaying Thematic Mapper, which allow it to be spread educationally to people who do not have a great deal of experience with Image Processing products.
P. KowaIczyk, Placer Dome Inc., Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
RELATING GROUND MINERALOGY VIA SPECTRAL SIGNATURES TO 18-CHANNEL
AIRBORNE IMAGERY OBTAINED WITH THE GEOSCAN MKII ADVANCED SCANNER: A 1989
CASE HISTORY FROM THE LEONORA, WESTERN AUSTRALIA GOLD DISTRICT
The GeoScan MK I scanner has flown in Australia approximately 450,000 sq.kms in the preceeding four years. The GeoScan MK II has recently been commissioned into service extending this considerable amount of field experience. The "October" imagery was unfortunately without the thermal band. This particular discussion will bear on trying to interpret the "October" imagery.
R.J.P. Lyon, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
COMPARISON OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGES AND GEOPHYSICAL
AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH IMAGING SPECTROMETER DATA FOR ALTERATION MAPPING,
This discussion focuses on the ongoing research at the Center for the Study of Earth and Space, concerning imaging spectrometer data analysis and techniques. Comparing the utilization of the TM and the geophysical environmental research imaging spectrometer for alteration mapping. Descriptive techniques, of the zone alteration in the Cuprite District.
K.S. Kierein-Young from University of Colorado, CO, USA.
MAPPING HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION IN THE GOLDFIELD MINING DISTRICT,
NEVADA, WITH THE AIRBORNE VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGING SPECTROMETER (AVIRIS)
This discussion presents some preliminary results arising from the analysis of AVIRIS data which was acquired from the Goldfield Mining District. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of AVIRIS high spectral/spatial resoloution data for Hydrothermal Alteration Mapping.
V. Carrere, Ph D from the University of Pierre et Marie Currie, Paris, France
LITHOLOGICAL INFORMATION IN ENHANCED LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER
IMAGES OF ARID REGIONS
AVIRlS High Spectral Resolution Data.
Using map and image data enhances TM images in arid regions, which may be utilized for lithological discrimination over the extensive development of varnish coatings. This discussion intends to show that considerable amounts of lithological information can be acquired from Enhanced Thematic Mapper Data. A. Pontual currently working for the Open University Milton Keynes, England
APPLICATION OF GEOSCAN AMSS MKI DATA TO LITHOLOGIC MAPPING
IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA
We can create colour images using sophisticated and mathematically complex Image Processing techniques. However, these colours are difficult to interpret geologicaly. The goal of this study is to propose Image Processing techniques which can provide not only colourful but geological meaningful results. Also, the discussion of technical research that correlates digital numbers to ground reflectance data.
Y. Yamaguchi, PhD from the Tahuka University in Japan. Researcher in Geothermal Energy Explorations and Geologic Remote Sensing for the Geological Survey of Japan.